1. Rule: Auxiliary verbs usually appear before main verbs
Example: Do you want to ride to the store?
Common list of auxiliary verbs
have, has, had, having
be, is, are, am, was, were, been, being
can, could, will, would, shall, should
may, might, must, ought to
do, does, did
2. Rule: After modals can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must, and ought to, use the base form of the verb.
Incorrect: I could talked to my friend yesterday.
Revised: I could have talked to my friend yesterday.
3. Rule: After do, use a base form of the verb.
Incorrect: She does likes to study at the library with her friends.
Revised: She does like to study at the library with her friends.
4. Rule: Use have, has, or had with the past participle form of the verb.
Incorrect: He might have offer to purchase the automobile if he had been given a better deal.
Revised: He might have offered to purchase the automobile if he had been given a better deal.
5. Rule: Use a form of the verb “be” with the present participle form of the verb.
Incorrect: John is study in his house today.
Revised: John is studying in his house today.
Incorrect: Susan is studied with her friends tonight.
Revised: Susan is studying with her friends tonight.
6. Rule: When using passive voice, the subject receives the action instead of doing it.
To change a sentence from the active voice to the passive voice, there are three steps:
A. The object becomes the subject of the sentence.
B. Use a form of the verb “be” with the past participle form of the verb.
C. Use the preposition “by” with the subject.
7. Rule: When using passive voice, use a form of the verb “be” with the past participle form of the verb.
Active : John purchased a sweater.
Passive: The sweater was purchased by John.
Active: The students played soccer at the stadium.
Passive: At the stadium, soccer was played by the students.
Incorrect: The Sound and the Fury wrote by William Faulkner.
Revised: The Sound and the Fury was written by William Faulkner.
Incorrect: The music was play by the orchestra.
Revised: The music was played by the orchestra.
http://www.michaelbuckhoff.com/index.html (TOEFL iBT)
http://www.michaelbuckhoff.com/page31.html (TOEFL iBT Speaking)
http://www.michaelbuckhoff.com/page28.html (TOEFL iBT Writing)
http://www.michaelbuckhoff.com/page23.html (TOEFL iBT Reading)
http://www.michaelbuckhoff.com/page20.html (TOEFL iBT Listening)
http://www.michaelbuckhoff.com/page14.html (TOEFL iBT Pronunciation)
http://www.michaelbuckhoff.com/page17.html (TOEFL iBT Grammar)
http://www.michaelbuckhoff.com/page10.html (TOEFL iBT Vocabulary)