-Ed endings for TOEFL Speaking and Writing

The -ed endings for TOEFL Speaking and Writing have three grammatical functions. In addition, the -ed ending can be pronounced three different ways.

-ed endings for TOEFL Speaking and WritingSimple Past -ed Ending

A verb is expressed in its simple past form when it occurs alone in a sentence.

  • Most students passed the exam with at least an 85% or higher.
  • Laura decided to post-pone the TOEFL iBT home edition; instead, she will go to a testing center once it reopens.

Past Participle -ed Ending

The -ed past participle endings occurs after the helping verb. In these cases, the past participle can be expressed in perfect and perfect progressive verb aspects.

  • Present perfect: John has lived in Oak Hills, California for more than 15 years.
  • Past perfect:  By the evening, Neal had already completed his homework assignments.
  • Future perfect: By next year, most students in the United States will have returned to taking classes in physical locations.
  • Present perfect progressive:  Susan has been working at Amazon for at least 7 years.
  • Past perfect progressive: By midnight, the wolves had been howling for almost three hours.
  • Future perfect progressive:  Most students will have been researching their topics by the middle of the semester.

In addition, the -ed ending occurs in passive voice.

  • Active voice with simple past verb: The student completed the assignment.
  • Passive voice with simple past helping verb and past participle main verb:  The assignment was completed by the student.

-Ed ending in an Adjectival Position

In addition, the -ed can occur on verbs that occur in adjectival positions. In this case, the verb does not function as part of the verb phrase.

  • Participial adjective: The desk used by the professor was worn from many years of use.
  • Prenominal adjective: Amazon put in hurried orders for all packages being shipped during the Christmas holidays.

-Ed Ending as a [t] Sound

The -ed ending is pronounced as a [t] after voiceless consonants, except the for [t].

  • stop + ed = stopped [t]
  • wash + ed = washed [t]
  • pass + ed = passed [t]

-Ed Ending as an [d] Sound

The -ed ending is pronounced as a [d] after voiced consonants, except the for [d].

  • grab + ed = grabbed [d]
  • buzz + ed = buzzed [d]
  • ban + ed = banned [d]

-Ed endings for TOEFL Speaking and Writing: The -Ed Ending as an [Id]

The -ed ending is pronounced as a [Id] after consonants [t] and [d]. In these cases, the [Id] adds an additional syllable to the end of the word.

  •  One syllable >>>>two syllables
  • Plant + ed = planted [Id]
  • grant + ed = granted [Id]
  • land + ed = landed [Id]
  • hand + ed = handed [Id]

-Ed endings for TOEFL Speaking and Writing Quiz: Simple Past, Past Participle, or Adjective?

Based on how the word is used in each sentence, identify it as the simple past, a past participle, or an adjective. Or, identify which word in a sentence needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct.

1. The book located on that shelf is more than 200 years old.

A. Simple Past

B. Past Participle

C. Adjective

 

2. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

The students wear out from having hiked for three straight days decided to end their vacation early.

 

3. Most workers finished their shifts several hours late due to the incredible demand for sanitary supplies.

A.  Simple past
B.  Past participle
C. Adjective

 

4. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

Anarchists have declare Washington D.C. an autonomous zone.

 

5. Most houses left on the market for more than six months will end up as short sales or foreclosures.

A.  Simple past
B.  Past participle
C. Adjective

 

6. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

Many of the rioters who looted stores and who threw fire bombs at police cars were not hold accountable for their atrocities.

 

7. This summer has been one of the most carefree summers I have ever had as a working adult.

A.  Simple past
B.  Past participle
C. Adjective

 

8. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

Swing with every ounce of energy she had, Jana hit the ball over the left field fence.

 

9. Hanged by the neck until he was dead, the convict had been found guilty of having killed three co-workers.

A.  Simple past
B.  Past participle
C. Adjective

 

10. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

Due to the Coronavirus, two English Language Program students, enrolling in the program during the summer, attended their classes virtually.

 

11.  Most of the squirrels have already eaten the berries from the Desert Juniper trees, so they are looking for new food sources to prevent starvation.

A.  Simple past
B.  Past participle
C. Adjective

 

12. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

Having some nervousness before marriage is normal, but my friend decide to not show up on wedding day.  

 

13. Finally, reached in fewer than 12 hours of deliberation, the verdict of guilty was pronounced by the jury.

A.  Simple past
B.  Past participle
C. Adjective

 

14. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

At the camp I went to when I was a kid, we experienced one of the hottest summers on record, with temperatures soaring above 100 degree F almost every day.

 

15. Covid19, spread across every state in the United States of America, has killed more than 122,000 people so far this year.

A.  Simple past
B.  Past participle
C. Adjective

 

16. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

Most project that a population of more than 20 billion people on our planet would be unsustaining.

 

17. The man left for dead after he was mugged and savagely beaten was taken to the hospital so he could be treated for his injuries.

A.  Simple past
B.  Past participle
C. Adjective

 

18. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

Two of the students complain of loud disturbances from other students in the TOEFL testing center, so they filed grievances with Educational Testing Center.

 

19. The man observed two suspects going into the banks wearing black masks

A.  Simple past
B.  Past participle
C. Adjective

 

20. Which word needs to be changed in order for the sentence to be correct?

Yesterday night,  a fascinating eclipse of the Moon occurred, which observed by most people living in the United States.

 

-Ed endings for TOEFL Speaking and Writing Quiz: [d], [t], or [Id]?

Identify how the -ed ending is pronounced. Remember that the -ed is pronounced as a [d] when it comes after voiced consonants except for the [d].  In addition, the -ed ending is pronounced as a [t] when it comes after voiceless consonants except for the [t]. Finally, the -ed creates a new syllable at the end of the word when it comes after the [t] or [d] consonant sounds.

1. grabbed

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

2. looked

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

3. discovered

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

4. included

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

5. bashed

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

6. bounced

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

7. chased

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

8.  constructed

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

9. coaxed

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

10. concealed

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

11. dodged

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

12. flipped

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

13. gloated

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

14. honked

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

15. irritated

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

16. growled

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

17. fainted

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

18. frowned

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

19. humiliated

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

20. gripped

A. [t]

B. [d]

C. [Id]

 

Leave a comment below if you want a particular type of vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, reading, listening, speaking, or writing lesson.  I will either create the lesson or send you a link to a lesson I I have already created. In addition, I have several useful services to help you complete your TOEFL journey. You can learn about them by clicking on the links below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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