Learn TOEFL words of addition so that you can improve your performance on the TOEFL exam.
Why are words of addition important to the TOEFL reading, listening, speaking, and writing sections?
Words of addition, such as “moreover,” “furthermore,” and “in addition,” are crucial in the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) sections because they enhance coherence and cohesion in both written and spoken communication.
In the reading section, these words help identify relationships between ideas and improve comprehension.
In the listening section, they aid in understanding transitions and connections within spoken passages.
In speaking and writing, they enable test-takers to connect ideas and arguments, demonstrating their ability to express themselves logically and fluently.
Overall, words of addition are essential for demonstrating a strong grasp of English language skills and improving overall communication clarity and effectiveness in the TOEFL test.
Subordinators, or subordinating conjunctions, are used to introduce dependent clauses that provide additional information or context in relation to the main clause. Here’s how these subordinators can be used to add to a previous idea:
Although / Despite / In spite of:
Example: “Although it rained heavily, the outdoor event continued as planned.”
“Although,” “Despite,” and “In spite of” all introduce a contrast or unexpected situation (heavy rain) in relation to the previous idea (continuation of the outdoor event).
Example: “Even though she was exhausted, she stayed up late to finish her assignment.”
“Even though” emphasizes that despite her exhaustion, she took the action of staying up late to complete her assignment.
Example: “While I understand your concerns, I believe this decision is necessary.”
“While” introduces an opposing viewpoint or consideration (concerns) in conjunction with the main idea (the necessity of the decision).
Example: “Since the traffic was heavy, they arrived at the party late.”
“Since” explains the reason (heavy traffic) for the outcome (late arrival at the party), adding context to the previous idea.
Because / As:
Example: “Because it was her favorite movie, she watched it multiple times.”
“Because” and “As” both provide the reason (favorite movie) behind the action (watching it multiple times) mentioned earlier.
These subordinators help establish causal relationships, contrasts, and reasons between clauses, enhancing the overall coherence and depth of the text by providing context and additional information.
Coordinators, also known as coordinating conjunctions, are used to connect words, phrases, or clauses of equal importance within a sentence. Here’s how these coordinators can be used to add to a previous idea:
Example: “She loves to read books, and she also enjoys writing short stories.”
“And” is used to link two related activities, indicating that both reading books and writing short stories are of equal importance or relevance.
Example: “The weather was beautiful, but they decided to stay indoors and work on their project.”
“But” introduces a contrast or an unexpected decision (choosing to stay indoors) in relation to the initial idea of beautiful weather.
Example: “You can choose either the red shirt or the blue one.”
“Or” presents options or choices related to the previous idea of selecting a shirt, indicating that both options are acceptable.
Example: “Neither the raincoat nor the umbrella could keep him dry during the heavy downpour.”
“Nor” is used in negative sentences to indicate that neither of the mentioned items (raincoat or umbrella) was effective.
Example: “She studied diligently, yet she didn’t perform well on the exam.”
“Yet” introduces an unexpected result (poor performance on the exam) in contrast to the initial idea of diligent studying.
Example: “The store was closed, so they decided to go shopping at another mall.”
“So” indicates a consequence or a decision (going shopping at another mall) that follows the initial idea of the store being closed.
Example: “She loves to travel, for it allows her to explore new cultures and meet interesting people.”
“For” is used to provide a reason (exploring new cultures and meeting interesting people) that supports or explains the previous statement about her love for travel.
Coordinating conjunctions help convey relationships between ideas, contrasting or connecting them to create coherent and well-structured sentences and paragraphs.
Here’s a 10-question multiple-choice test to assess your understanding of prepositions, transition words, coordinators, and subordinators:
Question 1: The weather forecast predicts rain ___ the weekend, so you should bring an umbrella. A) on B) during C) at D) in
Question 2: She enjoys playing the guitar, ___ her brother prefers the piano. A) but B) when C) besides D) however
Question 3: We need to leave early, ___ we won’t be late for the meeting. A) and B) because C) so D) but
Question 4: He went to the store ___ to buying groceries. A) in addition to B) as for C) likewise D) despite
Question 5: ___ we had a reservation, there was a long wait for a table at the restaurant. A) Even though B) Furthermore C) Since D) Alongside
Question 6: Please pass the salt. ___, can you also give me the pepper? A) For B) And C) But D) So
Question 7: The museum is open ___ Mondays and Wednesdays. A) because B) nor C) yet D) on
Question 8: She is interested in art ___ she has never visited an art gallery. A) although B) likewise C) moreover D) but
Question 9: I want to buy a new car ___ my limited budget. A) in addition to B) in spite of C) or D) besides
Question 10: He missed the bus ___ he overslept. A) over B) while C) and D) but